10 Best Web Development Languages to Explore In 2024

Shaunak Shukla

Project Manager at Intelivita

  Published on February 19, 2024

  12 min read

Web development languages aren’t created equal – some are suitable for simple projects, while others are more geared toward enterprise-level apps.

If you’re looking to build a website or web application for the first time, then understanding the top programming languages available is the first task on your to-do list.

Don’t worry, you don’t need to find the information yourself.

We’ve curated the 10 languages that top web development services use to build interactive and high-performing web apps.

Keep reading this article to find out the full recap.

The Best Web Development Languages in 2024

Without further ado, let’s start with the first list.

1. JavaScript

JavaScript is a high-level programming language used for building interactive and dynamic interfaces.

It was initially created to enhance the user experience of websites and web applications.

However, with the introduction of Node.js, JavaScript can now be used for server-side development as well.

As a result, developers can create full-stack applications using only JavaScript, making the process a lot faster.

Benefits

Downsides

  • Versatility: JavaScript allows developers to build interactive user interfaces on the client side, and robust backend infrastructures on the server side.
  • Wide adoption: It is supported by all major browsers, so you don’t have to worry about compatibility issues.
  • Ecosystem: JavaScript boasts a rich ecosystem with numerous libraries and frameworks, including React, Angular, and Vue.js).
  • Server-side capability: Thanks to Node.js, JavaScript can be used for server-side scripting, enabling full-stack development in a single language.
  • Asynchronous programming: This approach enables developers to efficiently handle concurrent operations and improve user experience.
  • Single-threaded execution: Operations in JavaScript are performed one by one. If an operation takes a significant amount of time, it can block the execution of subsequent operations, potentially leading to performance bottlenecks.
  • Nested callback: Asynchronous code can sometimes lead to nested callback structures, which can be challenging to manage.

2. Python

Python is a versatile, high-level programming language known for its readability and ease of use.

Originally designed to emphasize code readability, Python has evolved into a powerhouse for various software projects, ranging from web development to data science.

You can use Python’s frameworks, Django and Flask in particular, to streamline the development of web applications.

Benefits

Downsides

  • Readability and simplicity: Python’s clear syntax and structure enhance code readability and reduce the cost of program maintenance.
  • Extensive libraries: With a rich standard library and numerous third-party libraries like NumPy, Pandas, and TensorFlow, you can accelerate development across domains.
  • Community support: A large and active community fosters collaboration, providing ample resources, tutorials, and support.
  • Versatility: Python is suitable for various applications, including web development (Django, Flask), data science, machine learning, and automation.
  • Global Interpreter Lock (GIL): In multi-threaded Python programs, the GIL can limit the execution of multiple threads, which may affect performance.
  • Not made for mobile development: While possible, Python isn’t the first choice for mobile app development compared to languages like Swift or Kotlin.

3. HTML

HTML, which stands for Hypertext Markup Language, is the standard markup language used to create the structure and content of web pages.

It is the backbone of web development, providing a set of elements or tags that define the structure of a document.

Benefits

Downsides

  • Ease of learning: As a markup language, HTML is relatively easy to learn, making it accessible for beginners in web development.
  • Standardization: HTML provides a standardized way to structure web content, facilitating better collaboration among developers.
  • Flexibility: HTML allows developers to create a wide range of web content, from simple static pages to complex, dynamic web applications.
  • Integration with other technologies: HTML seamlessly integrates with other web technologies, such as CSS (for styling) and JavaScript (for interactivity), forming the core trio for modern web development.
  • Limited styling: HTML primarily focuses on structure and lacks advanced styling capabilities. Stylistic elements are often handled by CSS.
  • Static nature: HTML documents are generally static, and achieving dynamic behavior requires the use of additional technologies like JavaScript.
  • Security concerns: HTML itself is not a programming language and does not have security features. Security considerations are often addressed by server-side technologies and other security measures.

4. CSS

CSS, or Cascading Style Sheets, is a style sheet language used in web development to control the visual presentation of HTML documents.

While HTML focuses on the structure and content of a web page, CSS defines the layout, styling, and appearance, allowing developers to create visually appealing and responsive web designs.

Benefits

Downsides

  • Seamless code maintainability: Promoting the separation of content and presentation, CSS makes it easy to maintain code. This approach results in seamless collaboration among developers, designers, and content creators.
  • Consistent styling: Developers can define styling rules centrally, ensuring a consistent appearance of elements across the entire website.
  • Responsive design: CSS is adaptable to different screen sizes. Plus, its media queries allow developers to apply specific styles based on the characteristics of each user’s device.
  • Animations and transitions: With keyframes and transition properties, adding animations and interactive elements to web pages will feel effortless.
  • Learning curve: For beginners, understanding how CSS works may require some time and practice.
  • Global scope: CSS rules have a global scope, which means that styles can affect multiple elements. This can lead to unintentional styling conflicts if not managed carefully.
  • Limited dynamic capabilities: While CSS can handle static styling well, it has limitations in handling dynamic changes based on user interactions. JavaScript is often needed for more complex dynamic behaviors.

5. PHP

Originally known as Personal Home Page, PHP is an open-source server-side scripting language designed for web development.

It is embedded within HTML code and processed by a PHP interpreter on the web server, generating dynamic content that users see and interact with.

PHP is widely used for creating dynamic web pages, handling forms, interacting with databases, and performing various server-side tasks.

Benefits

Downsides

  • Server-side scripting: Developers can embed PHP code directly within HTML files, making it easier to create dynamic and interactive web pages.
  • Database integration: PHP supports interaction with popular databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQLite. This is crucial for handling dynamic content and data-driven applications.
  • Ease of learning: The syntax is straightforward, and developers can quickly start building dynamic web applications.
  • Wide popularity: Many well-established websites, including WordPress, Facebook, and Wikipedia, are powered by PHP.
  • Integration with web servers: PHP is often used in conjunction with popular web servers like Apache and Nginx. This integration allows the PHP interpreter to process PHP scripts and generate dynamic content on the server.
  • Inconsistency in function names: PHP’s function names and parameter orders can be inconsistent, which may create confusion for developers.
  • Scalability challenges: While PHP is suitable for small to medium-sized projects, it may face scalability challenges for larger applications.
  • Less modern language features: Compared to some newer programming languages, PHP may lack certain modern language features. However, ongoing updates and new versions have introduced some improvements in its functionality.

6. Java

While sharing a similar name, Java is a completely different language from JavaScript.

Traditionally known for enterprise-level applications, Java has become a prominent player in web development, offering robust solutions for building scalable, secure, and dynamic web applications.

Benefits

Downsides

  • Scalability: Known for its scalability, Java is perfect for developing large-scale and enterprise-level applications. It can handle increased workloads and users effectively.
  • Strong ecosystem: Java has a robust ecosystem with a vast array of libraries, frameworks, and tools. Popular frameworks like Spring and Hibernate simplify development tasks, enhance productivity, and ensure code best practices.
  • Highly secure: Features like bytecode verification, runtime security checks, and a strong security manager helps you create secure and reliable web applications.
  • Multi-threading support: This allows your web-based app to handle multiple tasks simultaneously, while still delivering maximum performance.
  • Steep learning curve: The language has a comprehensive set of features, which might be overwhelming for those new to programming.
  • Slower startup time: Java applications may have a slower startup time compared to some other languages. This can impact the user experience, especially for smaller web applications.
  • Memory consumption: Java is a resource-intensive language that takes up loads of your memory space. In other words, you may need to spend more money on high-resource servers.
  • Lack of modern language features: While Java has evolved big time, developers may miss certain conveniences found in more modern languages.

7. Ruby

Known for its simplicity and dynamic nature, Ruby makes web development enjoyable for engineers.

The primary framework that has propelled Ruby to prominence in the web development sector is Ruby on Rails, often simply referred to as Rails.

It follows the principles of Convention over Configuration (CoC) and Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY), promoting a more efficient and streamlined development process.

Benefits

Downsides

  • Productivity: Ruby is designed to optimize developer productivity. Its syntax and conventions allow developers to focus on solving problems rather than dealing with unnecessary complexities.
  • Object-oriented nature: As a purely object-oriented language, Ruby treats everything as an object. This approach helps developers organize code and enhance the maintainability of web applications.
  • Extensive libraries: Instead of working from scratch, you can integrate ready-made packages known as Gems to speed up web development.
  • Rails framework: Ruby on Rails (Rails) is a powerful web application framework built on top of Ruby. It streamlines development, resulting in faster time-to-market.
  • Metaprogramming capabilities: With Ruby, developers can write code that generates other code dynamically, which leads to more concise and expressive programs.
  • Performance: Ruby has been criticized for its performance compared to some compiled languages. While improvements have been made, certain types of applications might still run slower.
  • Global Interpreter Lock (GIL): It limits the execution of multiple threads simultaneously, affecting the scalability of Ruby applications.
  • Less popularity in some sectors: Ruby is highly popular in web development, particularly with Ruby on Rails. However, it may be less prevalent in other sectors or enterprise environments compared to some other languages.

8. Golang (Go)

Golang, commonly referred to as Go, was developed by Google engineers Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson and first released in 2009.

Go aims to provide a balance between ease of programming, execution speed, and scalability in the context of modern web app development.

Due to its concurrency features, Go is well-suited for building server-side applications and APIs. That said, it can also be integrated with frontend technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

Benefits

Drawbacks

  • Concurrency support: Goroutines and channels are key features that facilitate concurrent execution without the complexities often associated with traditional threading.
  • Efficiency and performance: Designed to be fast and efficient, Go’s runtime is optimized for quick startup and low memory consumption. This makes Go suitable for both small-scale projects and large-scale distributed systems.
  • Simple syntax: Its straightforward and minimalistic syntax contributes to faster development, easier maintenance, and reduced chances of errors.
  • Garbage collection: This feature removes the need for manual memory management, reducing the likelihood of memory-related issues.
  • Powerful dev tools: Go includes a set of powerful tools, such as gofmt for code formatting and govet for static analysis, helping developers maintain high-quality code.
  • Limited web framework ecosystem: While there are several web frameworks and libraries available for Go, the ecosystem is not as extensive as some other languages like Python or JavaScript.

9. TypeScript

TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript that adds static typing to the language.

Created by Microsoft, it was designed to make JavaScript development more scalable and maintainable, especially for larger projects.

TypeScript is commonly used in conjunction with popular frameworks like Angular and React for frontend web development.

Benefits

Downsides

  • Static typing: TypeScript introduces static typing, allowing developers to specify the types of variables, function parameters, and return values. This helps catch errors during development rather than at runtime.
  • Rich tooling: Features like autocompletion, navigation, and refactoring come in handy when it comes to enhancing the development experience.
  • Code readability: Explicit type annotations make the code more readable and self-documenting, making it easier for developers to understand and maintain the codebase.
  • JavaScript Compatibility: TypeScript is fully compatible with JavaScript. Existing JavaScript libraries can be used without modification, allowing for a smooth transition. It also supports ECMAScript features and proposals, providing access to the latest JavaScript language features.
  • Steep learning curve: Developers familiar with JavaScript may need some time to get used to TypeScript, especially when dealing with advanced type features.
  • Build step: TypeScript requires a build step to transpile code into JavaScript before it can be executed in a browser or a JavaScript runtime. This additional step can lead to delays in the development workflow.

10. C#

C# (pronounced C sharp) is a modern, object-oriented programming language also developed by Microsoft.

Initially designed for building Windows applications, it has since evolved into a versatile language used for various purposes, including web development, mobile app development, and game development.

To build dynamic and robust web applications, you can combine C# with frameworks like ASP.NET.

Benefits

Drawbacks

  • Integration with .NET framework: C# seamlessly integrates with the .NET Framework, providing a comprehensive set of tools, libraries, and features that simplify web development tasks.
  • Object-Oriented Programming (OOP): This approach puts the center stage on code organization, reuse, and maintainability, leading to cleaner and more scalable web applications.
  • Strongly typed language: As a strongly typed language, C# is great at catching errors at compile-time, enhancing code reliability.
  • Large developer community: C# has a large and active community of seasoned pros, providing access to resources, documentation, and community support for up and coming web developers.
  • Windows-centric: While C# has expanded its reach beyond Windows, it still has strong ties to the Microsoft ecosystem. This can limit its adoption for projects targeting non-Microsoft platforms.
  • Dependency on Microsoft technologies: Related to the previous point, most of its web development features work best when used with Microsoft tools and platforms.
  • Less flexibility with hosting: Some hosting providers may have limited support for C# compared to other popular web development languages like PHP or JavaScript.

Ready to Kickstart Your Web Development Journey?

So, which language do you prefer?

If you’re not sure, contact our web development consultants – they will be more than happy to help you out.

Simply tell us what type of websites or web apps you need, what features to include, and what audience you will serve.

We will help you choose the right language and create the whole web development plan, including timeline and costs.

Technical Project Manager

Shaunak Shukla, an experienced Project Manager with over 14 years of experience in PHP-based technologies, making him a true authority in the realm of web development.

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